for teachers: lesson ideas
To Kill a Mockingbird: Chapter 2
Вы уже успели удивить своих учеников новым видом времяпрепровождения на ваших уроках? Знаю, что кто-то уже "да". Так что самое время передать вам ключи от первой главы и ознакомить с заданиями ко второй.
Думаю, ваши ученики остались немного недовольны главой, которую вы им предоставили... Возможно, больше половины они не поняли. Возмущаются... Пообещайте им, что дальше будет интереснее. И вы не обманываете! Я перечитывала вторую главу, освежая в памяти, и хохотала. Думаю, правильные ученики тоже оценят юмор нашего милого маленького рассказчика. Да и потом, пусть не расстраиваются. Для этого вы им и задаете все эти вопросы на глубокое понимание, чтобы дальше чтение было понятнее и легче. Вот задания на ваше занятие по разбору второй главы.
У данной статьи есть меню в правом верхнем углу!
В прошлый раз я предлагала вам отдать уже разобранный анализ перед чтением, либо объяснить те или иные явления в ходе вашей дискуссии на занятии. Студентам соответствующих специальностей я предложила задать анализ на стилистику текста домой. В этот раз вы можете вместе с заданием на чтение второй главы выдать списком слова, указанные жирным шрифтом и попросить найти эти обозначения в тексте.

One example of this would be the phrase "professional people were poor." Another one would be "the cats had long conversations with each other, they wore cunning little clothes."


Tarzan and the Ant Men. The tenth book in Edgar Rice Burroughs' series of books about the character Tarzan.

Secession. In 1861, Alabama seceded from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America, fighting against the Union forces in the Civil War. Like most Southern states, they were fighting to keep slavery legal and, thus, to maintain their way of life. Winston County, however, seceded from Alabama in protest, and Scout knows this, as does every child in Maycomb. She mentions it to bring Miss Caroline's upbringing into question and show that she isn't to be trusted.

Once again, Scout comes into conflict with a female authority figure—this time, Miss Caroline. Scout tries to explain to her teacher about the Cunninghams and is punished for it, which seems unfair to Scout and sours her on the idea of school. This conflict is, however, slight compared to the bigger, more violent conflicts of later chapters. Rather than develop this as a primary conflict in the novel, Lee uses this episode to help develop Scout's character (as an intelligent, somewhat obstinate girl).

One example of this would be Miss Caroline saying that she employs experiential learning, then telling Scout not to read at home or let Atticus teach her.

One example is Scout saying that Miss Caroline "looked and smelled like a peppermint drop."


Education. This chapter marks the beginning of a divide between formal education and individual education, which becomes more obvious as the novel progresses. Scout's teacher Miss Caroline takes a kind of totalitarian approach and tells Scout to stop learning how to read and write at home, because it would interfere with her education. "You won't learn to write until you're in the third grade," she says, ignoring the fact that Scout already knows how. Scout's disillusionment with Miss Caroline and school leads her to seek her personal and moral education elsewhere.

Shame. Miss Caroline unintentionally embarrasses Walter Cunningham by offering him money for lunch without realizing he can't pay her back. The shame he feels stems less from his family's financial situation and more from the fact of not being understood. Everyone in town knows that he's poor and has learned not to embarrass him by offering him things, but Miss Caroline, a newcomer, has to be told about how things work. Throughout the novel, we'll see characters feel shamed for one reason or another, and this shame will help us understand the social structure in Maycomb.

Tradition. Tradition often goes hand in hand with superstition, which can at times have negative effects on a character's thoughts and behaviors. In this chapter, the best example of a tradition is one where people spit into their hands to shake on a bargain. Miss Caroline isn't familiar with this tradition, and this further distances her from the rest of the town.

У Ли Харпер прекрасный слог. Несмотря на то, что произведение далеко не современное, книга написана от лица маленькой девочкой, что дает нам прекрасный ресурс для прокачивания лексической стороны языка.
I. Match words 1-10 with meanings A-J.
1. apprehensively
2. condescended
3. entailment
4. illicitly
5. immune
6. indigenous
7. mortification
8. subsequent
9. union suit
10. wallowing

A. illegally
B. following
D. dwelling on something; thinking of something insistently
E. a legal issue having to do with limiting the inheritance of property
F. type of one-piece pajamas or long underwear with a seat ap that buttons
G. cautiously
H. humiliation
I. resistant to
J. agreed to with distaste

Answers: 1-G; 2-J; 3-E; 4-A; 5-I; 6-C; 7-H; 8-B; 9-F; 10-D

II. Express in own words

...I was not to tag along behind him at recess...
...Jem was in a haze for days...
...other persons of no background...
...they were immune to imaginative literature...
...nickels and dimes were hard to come...
...if he held his mouth right...
...came from a set breed of men...'re starting off on the wrong foot in every way...

Short quizzes to assess reading comprehension
Могут быть представлены учащимся в роли pre-reading или post-reading activity, в зависимости от ваших целей и задач.
1. What is ending as the chapter begins?
2. Why does Scout's ability to read and write annoy her teacher, Miss Caroline?
3. Atticus says that country people, like the Cunninghams, were hit the hardest by "the crash." To what is he referring? Why would country people be the ones to suffer the most?
4. Why are professional people also suffering?
5. What are Jem's rules for Scout at school?
6.Why does Jem not want Scout to acknowledge him at school? Is his behavior typical of an older brother?
7. An entailment is an unusual legality that prohibits a piece of land from being sold. It was designed to protect a family's interest in a piece of land because it could only be passed down to a member of the same family, never sold for profit. Jem describes an entailment as "a condition of having your tail in a crack," and Atticus later says that Jem's description is surprisingly accurate. How is this an apt description for the Cunningham family?
8. What does Scout's teacher, Miss Caroline, tell Scout she must stop doing? Why?
9. What do the kids think the Dewy Decimal System is?
10.What is Miss Caroline like? What do her interactions with Scout reveal?
11. What do you think of Miss Caroline Fisher as a teacher?

Keys (chapter 1)
1. What started the chain of events leading to Jem's breaking his arm, according to Jem? Who started it according to Scout?
Jem says that Dill came to town and gave them the idea of making Boo come out. Scout blames the Ewells for the events that unfolded. Atticus says they are both right.

2. We know that the setting of this story will be Maycomb, Alabama, a sleepy Southern town that's a little rough around the edges. What is the time period of this story? Give evidence to support your conclusion about the time period of this novel.
The novel is set in the early-to-mid 1930s, during the Great Depression. There's several pieces of
evidence that students might cite, including the reference to F.D.R. and his famous line, "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself," from his 1933 first inaugural address. Scout says, "Maycomb County has recently been told that it had nothing to fear but fear itself." Later, we'll know in ch. 21 that the trial of Tom Robinson takes place in 1935, when Scout is a little older than she is now.

3.Our narrator is Scout, a girl who will grow from age 6 to almost 9 during the story. What do you suppose we, as the readers, should be aware of as we listen to Scout tell her story? Is a child a reliable or unreliable narrator? Defend your answer.
Since Scout is a child, we should remember that she'll have a limited view/understanding of the world around her. In some ways, children are more open and honest than adults. In other ways, though, they are not able to fully make sense of the troubling things they see and are more likely than adults to accept someone's words without thinking critically about those words. A child's view of the world is delightful and we will be charmed by Scout. We will, though, need to read between the lines in this book at times as Scout struggles to understand things that the more - mature reader will already understand. Scout is an unreliable narrator, so the reader will need to do some work to determine that is – and isn't – true. Jem's exaggeration of Boo Radley's appearance is a good example of this. Scout believes her older brother; we, however, should be more skeptical.

4. Dill, the children's neighbor during the summer, is described as "a pocket Merlin, whose head teemed with eccentric plans, strange longings, and quaint fancies." What does this mean?
Dill is tiny for his age, hence the "pocket." He's so small you could tuck him in your pocket. He's a "Merlin," which is an allusion to the famous wizard/magician. Dill has a wonderful, inventive imagination. He loves stories and adventures. It's because of Dill's personality and ideas that Jem and Scout will be pulled into the Boo Radley mystery part of this story. If it hadn't been for Dill, these events would not have unfolded in this way.

5. Jem and Scout call their father by his frst name, Atticus, instead of calling him "Dad" or "Daddy." What does this tell you about their relationship?
The children's mom has died and Atticus is a single father. Students will probably guess that Atticus is a straight-forward or even stern man. They might guess that the relationship between the children and their father is more business-llike and less warm/fuzzy.

6. What has Dill done that earns him Jem's respect?
Dill has seen the movie Dracula. Dill seems worldly, as though he enjoys a lot of personal freedom.

7. What do both Scout and Dill lack?
A parent. Scout's mother has passed away, and we know nothing of Dill's father.

8. What does Charles Baker Harris proclaim he can do when introducing himself to Scout and Jem?
He can read. Jem answers that it's no big deal, that Scout's been able to read since she was born. This foreshadows the dif culty Scout will have in school because of her ability.

9. Describe the Radley place. How does this description set the mood?
The house is low, "once white," with rotting shingles and oak trees that don't provide shade so much as they "kept the sun away." The picket fence "drunkenly guarded" the yard, meant to be a "swept yard" or a hard dirt yard, but it is never swept and is instead full of weeds. The reader is made to feel the disrepair, the neglect, and the spookiness which frames the whole haunted story of Boo and is what attracts the children (and the reader), just as Dracula might.

10. Who were the Cunningham boys and what happened to them? What's the irony here?
The Cunninghams were rowdy troublemaking teens who were arrested, along with Arthur "Boo" Radley. Boo was taken home and locked away from the world by his father. The Cunninghams, however, were sentenced to attend the state's industrial school, sort of a juvenile hall of the 1930s. The irony is that the state school gave the boys an excellent education and one of them even went on to college to become an engineer. Boo, who wasn't even one of the ringleaders of the teen crew, was denied access to everything and still rots in that sad, broken house.

11. What do the Radleys do that Maycomb citizens and unacceptable? Why is this frowned upon?
They keep to themselves. By not integrating into town life, they seem to say they don't need others, and in turn they prevent others from inserting themselves into the Radley's business.

12. How does Boo come to be shut in his house? Who is the primary source of information about Boo for the children?
According to neighborhood legend and Miss Stephanie Crawford, a notorious gossip, Boo once ran with some wild teenage boys that were all sent to reform school. Boo's father said that he would keep him home instead and did, keeping him locked in the house. One day while he was cutting articles out of the newspaper, Boo ran his scissors through his father's leg and then resumed his work. Since Atticus won't verify the story, having the information come through Miss Stephanie lets the reader know that it may or may not be true.

13. How does Jem describe Boo to Scout?
He describes him like he's a monster: six-and-a-half feet tall; with bloodstained hands; yellow, rotten teeth; bulging eyes; and a scar across his face. He eats raw squirrels and drools.

14. What is the first animal to which Boo is compared and why?
A turtle. Jem says trying to make him come out of his house is like trying to get a turtle out of its shell. To do that, the children say, you light a match under them which isn't cruel, according to Jem, because they can't feel anything. At this point Boo is a thing to them, not a person.

15. According to Jem, how do you get a turtle to come out of its shell? In what way might this idea be an apt parallel to get people to do what they don't want to do? Give a real-world example to support your answer.
Jem says that if you light a match under a turtle, the creature will come out of its shell as it tries to move away from the fame. In life, people are sometimes fearful, but need a motivation to get moving. Examples from your students will vary. One example is of an obese man receiving an alarming medical report indicating that he's cutting his life short with his poor diet/inactivity. That doctor's visit (and the fear it creates) might be the fame that gets the man moving. In a similar way, the government will make laws and impose taxes to create a pain point to motivate citizens to move onto a better path. High cigarette taxes, for example, might motivate some smokers to give up the habit.

Ключи ко второй главе появятся в следующей статье к Chapter 3
Short-Answer Quizzes
1. Who is Scout's first grade teacher?

2. What is the Dewey Decimal System?

3. What events lead to the conflict between Scout and Miss Caroline?

4. Why is Mrs. Blount, the sixth-grade teacher, angry with Miss Caroline?

5. How does Scout learn to read?

6. The students in the class show some prejudice against Miss Caroline when she tells the class she is from Winston County, Alabama. Explain this prejudice.

7. How does Miss Caroline contradict herself about the use of imagination?

8. How does Miss Caroline contradict herself in her views on teaching reading?

9. How does Scout learn to write?

10. Describe the Cunningham family.

Answers (Chapter 1)
1. Calpurnia has been the cook for the Finch family since Jem was born. Scout describes Calpurnia as all angles and bones, nearsighted, and owning a wide, hard hand which she used to discipline Scout. Scout says Calpurnia is "always ordering me out of the kitchen, asking me why I couldn't behave as well as Jem . . . and calling me home when I wasn't ready to come."

2. Dill dares Jem to touch the Radley house.

3. Arthur and some other boys formed a group which was the nearest thing that Maycomb had ever had to a gang. They hung around the barbershop, rode the bus on Sundays to go to the movies, attended dances at the "gambling hell," and experimented with whiskey.

4. Maycomb is a small Southern town where the residents all know one another. The citizens are primarily law-abiding people. The class system is in effect and there is segregation evidenced by the statement that the sheriff hadn't the heart to put Arthur in "jail alongside Negroes."

5. The people of Maycomb say that Arthur goes out at night after the town is asleep. Many people fear the Radley Place and cross the street to avoid it. Any lost ball in the Radley's yard remains there.

6. It was Dill's idea to make Boo come out of his house.

7. Scout says that Jem always takes a dare. Bravery is of great importance to him. It is because of his need to be brave that Jem runs into the Radley yard and slaps the house.

8. A beadle is a crier or officer of the court. Mr. Connor is evidently a bailiff of the court.

9. Before the end of the summer the children run out of ideas for play. Dill gives them the idea to make Boo Radley come out of his house.

10. On Sundays the people of Maycomb go visiting; the ladies wear their Sunday best for this event. The Radleys do not participate, however; they keep their shades drawn to discourage visitors. The pace on Sundays in Maycomb is slow; the citizens scorn activities like picture shows on Sundays. When serious illness comes to a family, sawhorses are put up to cut down on traffic and noise. Straw is put in the street to cut down the noise of those who must use the street. The primary social events in the town are church-related activities.

The Response Journal
Для письменных заданий учащимся предлагается вести отдельную тетрадь, как RJ, который поможет им лучше понять прочитанное, обратить внимание на факты, которые они возможно не замечали. Одни вопросы обратят их напрямую к тексту, другие же помогут порефлексировать над собственным экспириенсом.
1. What is the narrator's given name? What is her nickname? If you have a nickname, what is it, and how did it become your other name? Explain why you like it—or don't like it.

2. Describe Scout's first morning in the first grade. How does she find herself in conflict with Miss Caroline? Which details suggest that Scout is both independent and intelligent?

3. Describe Miss Caroline's first morning as a teacher. What mistakes does she make? How do you explain her actions? Do you have any sympathy for Miss Caroline? Why or why not?

4. What are the economic conditions in Maycomb County after "the crash" (an allusion to the fall of the stock market and the beginning of the Great Depression of the 1930s)? How does Atticus explain them to Scout?

5. What is it that Miss Caroline doesn't understand about Walter Cunningham and his family? How does the author emphasize through Walter the poverty in Maycomb County?

6. From details in the chapter, what do you infer about Atticus and about Scout's relationship with him?

7. What elements of humor show up in the novel? How do they impact your reaction to the scenes?
S for Summary

Очень здорово, если вы заставляете просите своих пташек писать саммери по прочитанному материалу. Сильнейшее умение при изучении языка. Это помогает сконцентрироваться на основной идее, выявить ее и продемонстрировать собственными словами. Причем саммери можно писать не только по книге, но по лекции, подкасту, фильму. Самое главное, это не интерпретация материала, но основанный на фактах сгусток мысли. Примерное саммери, представленное ниже, предлагаю показать студентам после того, как вы проанализируете их собственные работы. Таким образом, к середине книги ваши ребята будут асы в написании таких штук.
Dill leaves Maycomb at the end of summer. In the wake of his departure, Scout's only comfort is the thought of starting school. Her brother walks her to class on the first day, explaining that, as a first grader, she isn't to hover around him at recess, talk about their home lives, or embarrass him in any way. He's in the fifth grade and doesn't want to be associated with the little kids. This fact takes Scout by surprise, as does her misunderstanding with her first grade teacher, Miss Caroline. Miss Caroline is new in town and doesn't understand that Walter Cunningham, one of the boys in the class, won't take anything off of anyone, not even the quarter Miss Caroline offers him to get lunch in town. Miss Caroline assumes Scout is being insolent and whacks her on the hand with a ruler. Later, when class lets out, Scout sees Miss Caroline sink into her chair, discouraged by her first day, but there's bad blood between them now, and Scout doesn't feel sorry for her.
Suggested Essay Topics

1. Contrast the teaching styles of Atticus Finch and Miss Caroline Fisher.

2. Describe the outward appearance and the actions of Miss Caroline. Are there any contradictions between the two?

Вот такой интересный урок может получится, если взять данный lesson plan за пример. Посредством таких двухнедельных чтений в канву урока вы также сможете вплести тему написания эссе, book review и summary. Я уверена, что с такими заданиями вы поможете пережить своим учащимся нечто новое на ваших занятиях.
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