for teachers: lesson ideas
To Kill a Mockingbird: Chapter 4
У наших ребят начались летние каникулы, Дилл снова вернулся, немного изменившийся. Наша Скаут тихонечко взрослеет, а грозный Бу Рэдли хочет подружиться с ребятами - все самое интересное впереди!
Эта глава будто умиротворенная, без учебы, без мерзкого грязного мальчика с вшами из класса, без странной, но в то же время бедной учительницы из школы... Мы вернулись в лето - то время, с чего началась наша история. То есть это второе лето вместе со Скаут и Джемом, а также со всеми полюбившимися нам героями. Вот только не сидится нашим ребятам на месте.
У данной статьи есть меню в правом верхнем углу!

One example of this would be "we polished and perfected it" (referring to the Boo Radley play).


Time Magazine. A popular magazine first published in March, 1923. It's among the most influential magazines in the United States, and the fact that Scout reads it is further proof of her intelligence and her very advanced reading level.

Metaphor. A good example of this would be Scout inching "sluggishly along the treadmill of the Maycomb County school system," where school is compared to a treadmill that runs endlessly and gets you nowhere. This is very telling and reveals Scout's true feelings about school.

Simile. One example of this would be Scout popping out of the tire "like a cork onto the pavement."


Games. "Summer was Dill," Scout says, meaning that when he arrives, their lives are enriched, and they play bigger, more elaborate games, like the play they act out in this chapter. This play marks the beginning of a major shift in the character of their games, which become less innocent and more dangerous in the proceeding chapters.

Lies. Characteristically, Dill's first words in this chapter are lies, which he insists on telling despite the fact that nobody believes them. Dill's lies are, however, innocuous, and cover up his insecurities, so that one can hardly fault him for having a little fun. Other characters don't have such innocent intentions, though, and we'll see the damage that lies can do during Tom Robinson's trial.

Superstition. Like a hain't, a Hot Steam is a spirit, like a ghost, who can't get to Heaven. A Hot Steam is more malevolent than a regular hain't, however, and hangs around Earth, trying to squeeze the life out of people who walk through their namesake hot places. That most of the biggest superstitions in this novel have to do in some way with death represents the fear that an untimely death produces in the main characters.

Если ваши читатели учат слова после каждой главы, вы сами готовите дополнительные задания на лексику, начинаете чаще в свою речь вкручивать словечки оттуда и отсюда, и учите тому же своих учеников, то каждая последующая глава будет даваться легче и чтение начнет приносить удовольствие. Тем более мы помним, что у нас акцент на extensive reading, так что минимум скучных заучиваний - больше общения!
Хорошие мои, в Chapter 3 я поделилась с вами своим готовым кроссвордом, в этот раз учу вас его делать.
Short quizzes to assess reading comprehension
Я всегда сначала спрашиваю, что вообще было понятно из прочитанной главы, какие моменты больше всего запомнились, понравились/не понравились, а затем "добиваю" своими вопросами. Не оцениваю ответы, как правильные или нет. Это определенно точно должна быть дискуссия, которая должна лишь помочь понять суть текста глубже. Ни в коем случае не забывайте интересоваться личным опытом своих учащихся.
1. How does the rest of Scout's year at school go?
2. What does Scout think of her school's new style of education? What does this failing show us about adults?
3. What's the first thing Scout finds in the knothole of the tree on the edge of the Radley property? What's the second thing she finds? How many of each item was there? Significance of this? Who, do you suppose, put the items in the tree hole?
3. How is Scout and Calpurnia's relationship changing?
4. Where do the children find the pennies? What does Jem say is special about them?
5. What does Scout mean when she says Jem's warnings about ghosts are "nigger-talk"?
6. What drama do the children enact for much of the summer?
7. What two reasons does Scout give for wanting to stop their favorite summer game?

Keys (chapter 3)
1. Why does Jem invite Walter Cunningham over for supper?
Walter is too poor to bring lunch and wouldn't accept the teacher's loan to buy lunch because he wouldn't be able to pay her back. Scout starts to beat Walter up because in trying to explain to MIss Caroline why Walter wouldn't take the money, she got in trouble.

2. What happens during lunch?
Atticus talks crops with Walter as though he were an adult. Walter pours syrup all over his food, and Scout embarrasses him for doing so. Calpurnia admonishes Scout and tells her she may not treat company that way; Scout is made to finish her lunch in the kitchen. Both Calpurnia and Atticus demonstrate to Scout that regardless of Walter's background, he is a guest in their home and will be treated with respect.

3. Why didn't Walter pass first grade?
Walter is smart enough, but he has to miss too much school helping his father on the farm.

4. Why does Walter Cunningham drench his lunch in molasses/syrup?
He's dirt poor and probably rarely, if ever, actually gets to eat any sweet syrup. He's so excited to be in a house that has syrup available that he covers all of his food with the treat.

5. When Scout criticizes Walter Cunningham's eating habits, Calpurnia scolds Scout, smacks her on the bottom as she sends the girl out of the room, and then lectures her on proper manners, saying, "Yo' folks might be better'n the Cunninghams but it don't count for nothin' the way you're disgracin' 'em." What does Calpurnia mean here? Is she right?
Scout's family has more money and belongs to the professional class, but those things don't show real class. The way we treat each other determines the real quality of people. Students' answers will vary a bit on the second question, but Calpurnia is right. The richest family could be the trashiest, depending on how the family members behave. Real Housewives of Anywhere, perhaps? One's bank account doesn't show who he/she is as a person.

6. In the tiff between Scout and Calpurnia, Atticus takes Calpurnia's side. What does this show us?
First, it shows us that Atticus does the right thing in supporting the right person. He's a good dad and models the best way to treat people. Second, this shows us that Atticus, whose wife has died before the beginning of the novel, is dependent on Calpurnia's domestic help. Without her, he wouldn't be able to raise his children well.

7. Describe the way that Atticus treats Walter. What do you think of this?
Atticus talks to Walter like he's a young man, not a little kid. He directs the conversation toward things that Walter knows/cares about; this shows that Atticus is kind and thinks about the other person's perspective. Walter might feel ill at ease coming to have a free lunch with Jem and Scout, but Atticus makes sure that he feels comfortable at the Finch table. We, of course, like this about Atticus. He models proper behavior for Scout, who still needs to learn the right way to treat a guest – even if, of especially if, that person is from a different social class.

8. Atticus tells Scout that you never really understand a person "until you climb into his skin and walk around in it." What does this mean? Give an example from your world to illustrate this idea.
He means that we must look at a problem/issue from the other person's perspective to get a better idea of what's really happening and to nd a solution. This ability to see something through the other person's eyes is a marker of maturity. Students' answers to the second question will vary, but they usually talk about resolving con icts with siblings, parents, or teachers once they view the problem from the other person's perspective.

9. What is the "compromise" which Atticus suggests at the end of the chapter?
He will keep reading with Scout in the evenings (it'll be their secret) if she agrees to continue to go to school. It's not really a negotiation, but Atticus makes Scout feel like she's worked a good deal for herself.

10. Who are the Ewells? How are they the same as the Cunninghams? How are they different?
The Ewells are a large, poor family and a disgrace to the town. One of the Ewell children, Burris, arrives for school covered in lth and hosting head lice. This family is broke and has no class; young Burris even calls the new teacher a slut before he storms out of the classroom. The Ewells are similar to the Cunninghams in that none of them has much money. The Ewells, however, are different than the Cunninghams because they don't have any pride, either. The Ewell mother is dead and the father is a drunk. The children attend school only on the rst day of the school year to appease the court of cials, but then they essentially drop out of school for the rest of the year. In Maycomb's social strata, the Ewells are far below the Cunninghams in terms of respectibility.

11. Why do Maycomb of cials bend the rules for the Ewells? Is this the right thing to do?
Atticus explains that some people cannot be changed, and Bob Ewell is one of those kinds of people. He'll always be a drunk and a neglectful parent. It's not worth the ght to keep the Ewell children in school, and Bob Ewell is allowed to illegally hunt because his children would starve otherwise. Atticus knows that sometimes the right thing is not the legal thing; he also understands the necessity of compromise. These issues, of course, will become larger themes as the story unfolds. Students' answers will vary a bit on the second question, which usually leads to an interesting class discussion.

Ключи к четвертой главе появятся в следующей статье к Chapter 5
Short-Answer Quizzes

1. What is the first present Scout finds in the tree?

2. When Dill says that he helped engineer the train, Jem says, "In a pig's ear you did, Dill." What does this mean?

3. Why has "Calpurnia's tyranny, unfairness, and meddling . . . faded to gentle grumblings of general disapproval," according to Scout?

4. What does Jem call Miss Caroline's teaching methods?

5. What is the second present found in the tree?

6. Who is the "meanest old woman that ever lived"?

7. When Atticus asks the children if their game pertains to the Radleys, Jem says "No sir." Atticus merely responds, "I hope it doesn't." Why does he stop the conversation at that point?

8. How do cowardice and bravery figure into Scout's taking part in the dramas about the Radley family?

9. What is the meaning of the following: "Dill was a villain's villain . . ."?

10. What is a Hot Steam?

Answers (Chapter 3)
1. Burris was the filthiest human Scout had ever seen. His neck was dark grey and his nails were black into the quick. He was rude to the teacher and said that she could not make him do anything he did not want to do.

2. He meant that Mr. Ewell was quarrelsome.

3. First, Miss Caroline saw a "cootie" on him. Then she dismissed him for the rest of the day to go home and wash his hair in lye soap and kerosene; she also reminded him—in front of the class—to bathe before coming back to school. After he tells her he will not be back, she asks him to sit down. Burris refuses and is confronted by Chuck. Miss Caroline tells him to go home or she will get the principal. Burris reminds her impolitely that she cannot make him do anything. He waits until he is sure she is crying, and then he shuffles off home. Burris always quits school the first day.

4. Atticus says at first that the learned authorities would receive their activities with "considerable disapprobation," or disapproval. He translates it to mean that he does not want Miss Caroline after him.

5. A cootie is another name for a head or body louse.

6. Walter thinks he almost died from eating poisoned pecans.

7. He tells her one should ignore some things. This is a type of behavior modification.

8. Walter has quickly forgotten that the Cunninghams do not accept that which they cannot repay. He is eager to eat!

9. Atticus is merely trying to get Scout to put herself in someone else's position.

10. A compromise is an agreement reached by two parties; often some concessions must be made by one or both of the parties. An example from To Kill a Mockingbird is when Atticus and Scout decide to continue to read each night if Scout will go to school.

The Response Journal
Мне порой очень нравится брать вопросы из RJ не только, как письменные задания, но также для наших "обуждалок". Здесь нет правильных и неправильных ответов. Это должна быть дискуссия, которая поможет понять суть текста глубже. Ни в коем случае не забывайте интересоваться личным опытом своих учащихся.
  1. The novel is written in the retrospective point of view as the narrator remembers and relates experiences from her childhood. Looking back, she makes this observation about being in the first grade:." I inched sluggishly along the treadmill of the Maycomb County school system, I could not help receiving the impression that I was being cheated out of something. Out of what I knew not, yet I did not believe that twelve years of unrelieved boredom was exactly what the state had in mind for me." What do you think Scout was "being cheated out of"? Given what you know already about Scout, why was she so bored? Describe what Scout finds in a knot-hole in one of the oak trees near the Radley house and what she and Jem find later in the same place. Why are they perplexed by finding these things in the tree? Who do you think put them there? Why do you think so?
  2. How does Jem regard Scout, who is four years younger than he is? Describe the role he takes in their relationship. How does he assert his authority as Scout's big brother? How do you think Jem feels about his little sister?
  3. Jem is now about eleven years old. What is his attitude toward girls? What does Jem say specifically about girls? Do you find this humorous? Why or why not?
  4. Who is Mrs. Henry Lafayette Dubose? What is Mrs. Dubose's reputation? How do Cecil Jacobs and Jem deal with the problem of Mrs. Dubose?
  5. When Dill returns to Maycomb to spend another summer with his aunt, how has he changed? What does he tell Jem and Scout about his trip on the train and about his father? Do you think Dill's stories are true? If not, why would he make them up? What is your impression of Dill's life with his family?
  6. What evidence do you have that Jem and Scout haven't grown up very much at this point in the novel? How is their immaturity reflected in their beliefs, behavior, and specific activities?
  7. What occurs at the Radley house that Scout keeps to herself? What do you think it implies? Why do you think so?
S for Summary

Очень здорово, если вы заставляете просите своих пташек писать саммери по прочитанному материалу. Это помогает сконцентрироваться на основной идее, выявить ее и продемонстрировать собственными словами. Причем саммери можно писать не только по книге, но по лекции, подкасту, фильму. Самое главное, это не интерпретация материала, но основанный на фактах сгусток мысли. Примерное саммери, представленное ниже, предлагаю показать студентам после того, как вы проанализируете их собственные работы. Таким образом, к середине книги ваши ребята будут асы в написании таких штук.
Unsurprisingly, Scout finds the Dewey Decimal System boring and finds school to be a waste of time. One day, while running past the Radley house on her way home, she spots a bit of tinfoil in the knothole of an oak tree on the Radley lot. Inside, Scout finds two pieces of chewing gum. It's unclear at first who leaves her this gift. Jem doesn't believe she found it and makes her spit it out when he gets home from school, but later, when they find more tinfoil with a pair of Indian head pennies, he becomes curious. He knows there aren't many people who go by there (Cecil Jacobs walks a mile out of his way to avoid the Radley house), which makes it especially strange.

Two days after Jem and Scout find the Indian heads, Dill arrives from Meridian. He tells them a bunch of tall tales about seeing conjoined twins and riding with the train engineer, then pretends to predict the future. Jem scorns these superstitions, explaining to Dill about Hot Steams, which are spirits that can't get to Heaven and hang around on Earth, trying to suck the life out of people who pass through them. Tired of talking and playacting, they decide to roll around in a spare tire, which leads to Scout accidentally rolling too fast onto the Radley property. When Scout recovers she runs out of the yard, leaving the tire for Jem to retrieve.

After this, the children act out a play, One Man's Family, based on the rumors about the Radleys (in particular, Boo's attack on Mr. Radley). Whenever Nathan Radley walks by, they pause in the middle of a scene so he won't know what they're doing. Atticus figures it out, though, and this is Scout's second reason for wanting to quit the game—the first, she says, is the fact that when she rolled onto the Radley property, she heard someone inside the house laughing. She assumes this is Boo.

Suggested Essay Topics

1. What evidence does one have that Boo Radley is trying to make friends with the children?

2. How is Scout growing and maturing as the story progresses?

Вот такой интересный урок может получится, если взять данный lesson plan за пример. Посредством таких двухнедельных чтений в канву урока вы также сможете вплести тему написания эссе, book review, summary, и конечно же обсуждения. Я уверена, что с такими заданиями вы поможете пережить своим учащимся нечто новое на ваших занятиях.
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